Hot, buoyant, mineral-laden fluids rise from deep within ocean crust and mix with cold seawater. That triggers the precipitation of minerals that form deposits near and on the seafloor. Precipitating minerals also form seafloor "chimneys," and mineral particles in the fluids venting at the seafloor make the fluids look like smoke. The ocean contains a complex combination of physical, chemical, biological, and geological processes that sometimes result in commercially viable forms of a wide range of minerals. This is particularly true in the deep ocean at areas around hydrothermal vents where hot, chemical-rich fluids pouring up from beneath the seafloor produce potentially valuable deposits.
The Age of the Earth - Ocean Floor Sediment as a Creationist Clock: Jason Tentinger
The findings, based on the reconstruction of large, L-shaped burrows from layers of seafloor dating back to the Miocene 23 million to 5. Trace fossils are geological features such as burrows, track marks and plant root cavities preserved in rocks, which allow for conclusions to be drawn about the behaviour of ancient organisms. The trace fossil consists of an L-shaped burrow, roughly 2 metres in length and 2—3 centimetres in diameter. The morphology of Pennichnus suggests the burrows were likely inhabited by giant marine worms, such as the bobbit worm Eunice aphroditois , which are still found today.
Palaeontology: Fossil burrows point to colonization of ancient seafloor by giant marine worms
Mission Plan. Seafloor Mapping. Vent Chemistry.
Seafloor spreading is a geologic process where there is a gradual addition of new oceanic crust in the Ocean floor through a volcanic activity while moving the older rocks away from the mid-oceanic ridge. Seafloor spreading was proposed by an American geophysicist, Harry H. Hess in By the use of the sonar, Hess was able to map the ocean floor and discovered the mid-Atlantic ridge mid-ocean ridge. He also found out that the temperature near to the mid-Atlantic ridge was warmer than the surface away from it.