A self-organizing map SOM or self-organizing feature map SOFM is a type of artificial neural network ANN that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional typically two-dimensional , discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map , and is therefore a method to do dimensionality reduction. Self-organizing maps differ from other artificial neural networks as they apply competitive learning as opposed to error-correction learning such as backpropagation with gradient descent , and in the sense that they use a neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties of the input space. This makes SOMs useful for visualization by creating low-dimensional views of high-dimensional data, akin to multidimensional scaling. The artificial neural network introduced by the Finnish professor Teuvo Kohonen in the s is sometimes called a Kohonen map or network. While it is typical to consider this type of network structure as related to feedforward networks where the nodes are visualized as being attached, this type of architecture is fundamentally different in arrangement and motivation. Useful extensions include using toroidal grids where opposite edges are connected and using large numbers of nodes.
Kourtney Kardashian Becomes Her Own 'Elf on the Shelf' in Revealing Christmas Photos
24 naughty and nice Elf On The Shelf ideas for every day leading up to Christmas - Daily Star
Christmas is celebrated to remember the birth of Jesus Christ , who Christians believe is the Son of God. The name 'Christmas' comes from the Mass of Christ or Jesus. A Mass service which is sometimes called Communion or Eucharist is where Christians remember that Jesus died for us and then came back to life. The 'Christ-Mass' service was the only one that was allowed to take place after sunset and before sunrise the next day , so people had it at Midnight!
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Although elfs may occasionally be found in print the accepted modern plural form of elf is elves. Nicholas," which described the titular figure as "a right jolly old elf. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'elf. Send us feedback. See more words from the same century.
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